Type 2 Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Diabetes is a metabolic condition caused by the body’s inability to make or use insulin adequately.

Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, helps to regulate blood sugar levels. High blood sugar levels occur when a person has diabetes because their bodies may not create enough insulin or may not be able to use the insulin that is produced effectively.

According to the WHO, an estimated number of 422 million people worldwide have diabetes. Majority of diabetic patients live in low-and-middle income countries. Diabetes is also responsible for 1.5 million deaths every year.

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus:

Diabetes can be caused by multiple factors. Some of them are listed below:

Family history: Having a family history of diabetes elevates the chance of to catch the disease.

–Obesity: Being overweight prompts to insulin resistance that can finally results in diabetes.

–Low physical activity: Low or no physical activity can enhance the possibility of diabetes.

–Pancreatic disease: Diseases that affect the pancreas, such as pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer, can lead to diabetes.

–Medications: Certain medications, such as corticosteroids or antipsychotics, can increase the risk of diabetes.

Types of Diabetes:

There are three main types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes:

When you have type 1 diabetes, your blood glucose (sugar) level is excessively high because your body is unable to produce the hormone insulin.

When your body destroys the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas, you are unable to generate any at all.

We all require insulin to stay alive. It performs a crucial function. It enables the blood glucose to enter our cells and provide energy for our bodies.

Type 2 diabetes:

When your pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or the insulin it does produce cannot function correctly, you have type 2 diabetes that is a dangerous condition. Your blood glucose (sugar) levels are therefore continuing to rise.

It accounts for 90–95 percent of all instances of diabetes, making it the most prevalent type of the disease. Obesity, sedentary activity, and poor diet are frequently linked to type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes:

This kind of diabetes usually goes away once the baby is born and develops throughout pregnancy.

The hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy that can reduce the body’s ability to respond to insulin are what lead to gestational diabetes.

Macrosomia (huge birth weight) and hypoglycemia are two problems that are more likely to affect newborns of women who acquire gestational diabetes and who subsequently go on to develop type 2 diabetes (low blood sugar). Changes in lifestyle, medicine, and/or insulin therapy may all be used to treat gestational diabetes.

Difference between Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes:

The primary distinction between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that type 1 is a genetic illness that frequently manifests in childhood, whereas type 2 is primarily a result of lifestyle choices and develops over time. When you have type 1 diabetes, your immune system attacks and kills the cells in your pancreas that make insulin.

Despite the similarities between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there are also many distinctions. such as their causes, the people they impact, and the best ways to manage them.

To begin with, 8% of all people with diabetes have type 1. 90% of people with diabetes have type 2, though.

Symptoms of Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes:

–Frequent urination, especially at night

–Feeling extremely thirsty

–Feeling more exhausted than usual

–Not attempting to lose weight

–Experiencing genital itching or thrush

–Cuts and wounds taking longer to heal

–Experiencing impaired vision

Treatment of Diabetes:

As was previously mentioned, diabetes is essentially a lifestyle condition that may be managed by altering how we live. PLEASE AVOID SERVING AS YOUR OWN DOCTOR!

Managing Type 1 Diabetes:

Managing type 1 diabetes is not an easy task. Making lifestyle adjustments can have an impact on how you feel, including exercising, carb counting, and eating a nutritious, balanced diet.

We now have more knowledge about medications and how to maintain target blood sugar levels, allowing you to manage your disease successfully and lower your risk of issues down the road.

We understand that having diabetes affects you emotionally as well as physically, therefore we’re also available for you if you need that.

Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes:

Managing type 2 diabetes require lot of efforts ranging from maintaining a healthy weight and eating a wholesome diet to prescription drugs. Some of the treatments are listed below:

–Keeping a healthy weight, engaging in as much physical activity as you can, and eating wholesome foods

–Prescription drugs, including insulin-containing pills and injections, are also available

–Or other methods for remission of type 2 diabetes

For the treatment of type 2 diabetes, there are numerous different types of drugs available, such as:

Metformin: A drug that improves the body’s sensitivity to insulin and aids in lowering the quantity of glucose generated by the liver.

Sulfonylureas: A group of drugs known as sulfonylureas encourages the pancreas to make more insulin.

DPP-4 inhibitors: These are a class of drugs that increase the body’s ability to create insulin and decrease the amount of glucose the liver produces.

GLP-1 receptor agonists: These are a class of drugs that encourage the body to make more insulin and lessen the amount of glucose that is generated by the liver.

Treatment of Diabetes in Unani System of Medicine:

Diabetes is referred to as “Zayabetus Shakri” in Unani medicine, and it is treated with a combination of herbal medicines, dietary alterations, and lifestyle adjustments. Here are a few herbal treatments for type 2 diabetes that are frequently utilised in Unani medicine:

Fenugreek seeds (Methi): Fenugreek seeds are frequently used to help reduce blood sugar levels in Unani medicine. They include a lot of soluble fibre, which slows down the bloodstream’s absorption of sugars and carbohydrates.

–Karela or bitter gourd: It is a common vegetable used in Unani medicine to help control blood sugar levels. It has substances that are comparable to insulin and can improve the body’s utilisation of glucose.

–Cinnamon (Dalchini): Unani medicine frequently uses cinnamon as a spice to help reduce blood sugar levels. It has elements that can enhance insulin sensitivity and lessen inflammatory responses in the body.

–Gurmar or Gymnema: It is a herb that is frequently used in Unani medicine to control blood sugar levels because it has active ingredients that can increase insulin secretion and decrease glucose absorption.

Amla or Indian gooseberry: This super fruit helps lower blood sugar levels, and it is commonly used in Unani medicine. Its strong antioxidant concentration helps improve insulin sensitivity.

Treatment of Diabetes in Homeopathy:

Homeopathy is an alternative medicine system that uses highly diluted natural substances to stimulate the body’s natural healing processes.

Diabetes treatment in homoeopathy is based on the symptoms, medical history, and other factors of the individual patient.

Homeopathy treats diabetes holistically, addressing the disease’s underlying causes rather than just the symptoms.

Some homeopathy treatments for diabetes management are listed below:

–Syzygium Jambolanum: A remedy made from the seeds of the Indian jambul tree is widely used in homeopathy to lower blood sugar levels.

Uranium Nitricum: It is used to address diabetes symptoms such as frequent urination and thirst.

Lycopodium: Derived from the spores of the clubmoss plant, this remedy is commonly used in homoeopathy to help manage diabetes symptoms such as fatigue, digestive problems, and sugar cravings.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

What is Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the body either becomes resistant to insulin or fails to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.

What are the risk factors for developing Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Causes of developing Type 2 Diabetes include obesity, family history, being physically inactive, and having high blood pressure.

How is Type 2 Diabetes diagnosed?

Answer: Type 2 Diabetes is diagnosed through a blood test that measures fasting blood glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, and A1C tests.

Can Type 2 Diabetes be prevented?

Answer: Maintaining blood glucose levels is difficult but not impossible. Eating a wholesome diet, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy weight can prevent diabetes. If you enjoy smoking, then for the sake of your health, quit.

What are the long-term complications of Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: If not managed properly, the diabetes can damage nerves and kidneys besides causing heart disease and blindness.

How is Type 2 Diabetes treated?

Answer: Type 2 Diabetes is treated through lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise, and medications such as metformin and insulin.

How can diet affect Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Maintaining blood sugar levels and averting complications can be facilitated by adhering to a nourishing and healthful diet.

What type of exercise is best for Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Swimming, running, walking, and aerobic exercises are recommended for diabetic patients as they can enhance insulin sensitivity and regulate blood sugar levels.

How often should blood sugar levels be checked in people with Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Your doctor will check A1C levels at least twice a year and whenever your treatment changes. A1C target goals vary depending on age and other factors.

What is insulin resistance?

Answer: A resistance to the hormone insulin, resulting in increasing blood sugar. With insulin resistance, the body’s cells don’t respond normally to insulin. Glucose can’t enter the cells as easily, so it builds up in the blood. This can eventually lead to type 2 diabetes.

Can Type 2 Diabetes be cured?

Answer: Type 2 Diabetes cannot be cured, but it can be managed through lifestyle modifications and medications.

What is the role of genetics in Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Genetics can play a role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes, as it tends to run in families.

What is the relationship between obesity and Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Obesity is a major risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes, as it can lead to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance.

How does stress affect blood sugar levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Stress can cause blood sugar levels to rise in people with Type 2 Diabetes, as it triggers the release of stress hormones that raise blood sugar levels.

Can alcohol consumption affect blood sugar levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Yes, alcohol consumption can affect blood sugar levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes, as it can cause hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.

What is the role of medications in managing Type 2 Diabetes?

Answer: Medications such as metformin and insulin can help manage blood sugar levels in people with Type 2 Diabetes.


In conclusion, we can say that both Type 1 and type 2 Diabetes are serious health conditions. A change in lifestyle and eating habits, coupled with drugs prescribed by the doctor, can help manage diabetes to a considerable extent.

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